What to know about a broken tailbone

Broken tailbone: Signs, symptoms, treatment, and recovery

The tailbone, or coccyx, is
the last bone in the spine. This triangle shaped bone is made up of three to
five different sections, which can make it difficult to detect a broken
tailbone.
Tailbone breaks, or fractures,
are fairly uncommon. It is more common for a person to bruise their tailbone or
pull a ligament in that area.
The symptoms of a broken
tailbone are similar to those of a bruised tailbone, so it can be difficult to
diagnose. Treatment options for broken and bruised tailbones are also similar.
When the tailbone is broken,
it may:

  • be displaced, which occurs
    when the separated bone fragments are clear on an X-ray
  • be a hairline fracture,
    wherein the broken pieces are not separated
  • be comminuted, which occurs
    when the bone breaks into multiple pieces
This article discusses what
can cause a broken tailbone and how to identify one, along with treatment
options and recovery tips.
Symptoms

The symptoms of a broken
tailbone include:

  • an almost constant dull pain
    in the very low back, just above the buttocks
  • pain that worsens when sitting
    and when standing up from a sitting position
  • swelling around the tailbone
  • pain that intensifies during a
    bowel movement
  • pain that intensifies during
    sexual intercourse
  • irregular bowel movements
  • numbness or tingling in the
    leg
Causes

The most likely cause of a
broken tailbone is trauma or direct injury.
In young people, a broken
tailbone is most often due to a backward fall or a high energy accident. In
some groups, including older adults, nutritional deficiencies can make broken
bones more common.
Though rare, childbirth can
also lead to fractures of the coccyx. This bone is particularly vulnerable to
injury during difficult labor, or labor that requires the use of instruments,
due to its location in the body. Tailbone bruises are more common than
fractures.
Females are more likely than
males to experience tailbone injuries. Obesity is also a risk factor for
tailbone problems.
Diagnosis

Because many factors and
conditions can cause pain around the tailbone, diagnosing a broken tailbone
requires a doctor taking the person’s medical history, conducting a physical
exam, and ordering medical testing.
To take a thorough history,
the doctor will explore:

  • possible causes of the pain,
    including falls or sports injuries
  • possible nontraumatic causes,
    such as age-related wear and tear
  • pain that could be from other
    sources
A physical exam and a rectal
exam will give the doctor more information about the site of the pain, as well
as what may be causing or contributing to it.
Problems with the piriformis
muscles and nearby joints, for example — such as the sacroiliac and lumbosacral
facet joints — can contribute to pain in and around the tailbone.
Testing for a broken tailbone
will include cancer screening and medical imaging.
X-rays can help a doctor
locate and assess the damage to the tailbone. If the X-ray does not provide a
clear image, or if there are other concerns about what is causing the pain, an
MRI scan can provide more information.
Partly due to the structure of
the coccyx and other conditions that might exist at the same time as the injury
— such as obesity, gas, or constipation — it is not always easy to diagnose a
broken tailbone.
Treatment


Unlike other broken bones, it
is not possible to put the tailbone in a cast and immobilize it. Instead, a
doctor might recommend using techniques to reduce the pain.
For example, they may suggest
using:

  • Specially designed cushions:
    These can be very helpful for a person with a broken tailbone. These cushions
    have a hole cut out in the middle, allowing a person to sit without putting
    pressure directly on the coccyx. These cushions are available online.
  • Hot and cold packs: These can
    help ease inflammation and pain around the injury. Some sources recommend using
    cold packs on and off for the first 2 days after the injury — placing a cloth
    between the skin and the pack so that it does not feel uncomfortable — and
    using warm soaks after 2 days.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
    drugs and acetaminophen:
    These can also provide pain relief. If the pain is
    very severe, a doctor may instead prescribe opiates.
  • A standing desk: For people
    who spend a lot of time at a computer or desk, using a standing desk can be
    helpful while recovering from a broken tailbone.
Doctors may recommend steroids
or nerve blocks if the pain is very severe. Undergoing surgery for a broken
tailbone is rare, and doctors usually recommend this only when all alternatives
have not worked and the pain is interfering with the person’s quality of life.
Recovery

Recovery from a broken
tailbone can take some time. Most fractures take 6–12 weeks to heal.
Many people who experience a
broken tailbone are athletes, and they are usually eager to return to play.
Some experts say that the limiting factors are pain and the risk of pressure on
the tailbone.
If there is any risk of
re-injury, the person should delay returning to that activity.
Exercises

Rest is very important when a
bone is broken, and people need to give themselves time to heal when they have
a fractured coccyx.
However, it is also important
to strengthen the muscles around the tailbone, stretching them regularly to
keep tightness and imbalances from developing.
A doctor may provide a list of
exercises to strengthen the hips and core, as well as pelvic floor exercises
and stretches to relieve pressure on the gluteal muscles, back, and hamstrings.
They may also refer a person to a physical therapist for more extensive
treatment.
Learning how to sit with good
posture is a good way to promote and protect a healthy tailbone.
Summary

A broken tailbone is a rare
and painful injury that can affect people of all ages, from young athletes to
older adults.
Treatment generally consists
of reducing pain and preventing further injury to the tailbone. Recovery can
take up to 12 weeks, and people should rest during this time to encourage
healing. Some light exercises can help strengthen the muscles in the area.
Medically reviewed by Timothy
Gossett, MD 

Written by Danielle Dresden
SOURCE:
MEDICAL NEWS TODAY

Kayode Ojo
Kayode Emmanuel Ojo is the Co-Founder and Managing Director at SHEFFA Limited. He is presently studying Computer Science at the National Open University, Victoria Island, Lagos.